Lymphoma

What is lymphoma?

Lymphoma is a blood cancer, which appears as a solid tumor most commonly in the lymph nodes of the chest, neck, armpit or groin. The cancer affects immune cells called lymphocytes, which are white blood cells. Lymphocytes are mainly found in the lymph nodes and lymphoid tissues, which make up the lymphatic system. Besides, the lymphatic system is a network of vessels that runs throughout the body carrying fluid containing important cells of the immune system.

What are the types and the causes of Lymphoma?

Lymphomas have two types that are Hodgkin lymphoma and non-Hodgkin Lymphoma. Hodgkin lymphoma is marked by the presence of a type of cell called the Reed-Sternberg cell. The two types of Hodgkin lymphoma are classical Hodgkin lymphoma and nodular lymphocyte-predominant Hodgkin lymphoma. Non-Hodgkin Lymphoma is a large group of cancers of lymphocytes. These types can be divided into aggressive and indolent types and they can be formed from either B-cells or T-cells. Usually, the lymphomas that occur after bone marrow or stem cell transplantation are usually B-cell non-Hodgkin lymphomas.
There are several causes against lymphoma types:

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LYMPHOMA TREATMENT

Non-Hodgkin’s Hodgkin’s
Age
Most non-Hodgkin lymphomas are in people 60 years of age and over.
Age
Typically people in their 20s, and people over the age of 55 years
Sex
There are different rates of different types of non-Hodgkin’s lymphoma across the sexes.
Sex
Slightly more common in men
Ethnicity and location
African American and Asian-American are less prone than white American and the disease is more common in developed nations of the world.
Location
Most common in the USA, Canada and Northern Europe. Least common in Asia.
Chemical and radiation
Some chemicals used in agriculture have been linked, as has nuclear radiation exposure.
Family
If a sibling has the condition, the risk is slightly higher, and very high if there is an identical twin.
Immune Deficiency
eg: caused by HIV infection or in organ transplantation.
Immune Deficiency
HIV infection
Autoimmune disease
the immune system attacks the body’s own cells.
Affluence
People from higher socioeconomic status are at greater risk.
Infection
Viral and bacterial infections increase the risk
Infection
infection with Epstein-Barr virus
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